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French Category Explanations (FrAG)

Symbols used in the French Constraint Grammar, in Treebanks and in "free input" mode

Clause level arguments
Clause level adjuncts
Subordination and co-ordination
Group level constituent function
The verb group
Group forms
Clause form and parataxis
Word classes and morphological form
Utterance function

Valency: valency tags (part of a cross-language overview file for CG tags)
Semantics: semantic prototypes


Background


Most morphological and all syntactic VISL modules for the analysis of free text input are built on the Constraint Grammar paradigm in general, and the Portuguese Palavras parser in particular. As a natural consequence of this, the tags and categories used in the individual Constraint Grammars and research corpora are relatively stable across languages, facilitating grammar development and cross-language comparison. The VISL group has striven to maintain such notational compatibility in its teaching grammars, too, and has agreed on a number of corner stone conventions and symbol sets. However, inevitably, different grammar and teaching traditions, as well as different depth and scope of the individual teaching grammars, have led to some variation across languages, usually at the level of subcategories. The category and symbol set presented on this page have been developed by Eckhard Bick while building a general CG parser and syntactic tree generator for French, The French Annotation Grammar (FRAG), which is largely compatible with its sister systems for Portugese, Danish, Spanish and German. FRAG is work in progress and thus subject to regular updates, which will first be accessible on http://beta.visl.sdu.dk for testing, before being published on the VISL server as such (visl.sdu.dk). FRAG's tag set works with all of VISL's pedagogical complexity filters, as well as various corpus handling tools.

Constraint Grammar vs. Constituent Trees

Conventionally, CG primary categories and tags are given in capital letters, for instance 'N M S' for a male gender noun in the singular. Syntactic tags are function tags with a @-prefix and dependency arrows pointing towards the relevant head, for instance '@SUBJ> 'for a subject to the left of its predicator, or '@N<' for a post-nominal dependent. For teaching and constituent tree notation, VISL has adopted a slightly different convention, with capital letters for function categories and small letters for form categories. Subcategories are attached in small letters after the main category, for instance 'Od' or 'Oacc' for a direct (accusative) object, and 'v-inf' for a verb in the infinitive. Function and form categories are combined in composite symbols, e.g. 'S:np' for a subject that is a noun group. On the VISL website, you will typically meet the CG symbols in "vertical" word-for-word analysis, and the FUNCTION:form convention in graphical tree analysis. CG tags are easily converted into FUNCTION:form symbols by running a filter-program on the parser's output, and in the tables below, both tag types are listed, in blue and red, respectively.

Corpus Annotation

Striving to serve different processing needs, search facilities and linguistic conventions, VISL corpora come in two, parallel, flavours - word based dependency annotation on the one hand, and constituent trees on the other. Both formats, however, provide full form & function information. The French pilot corpus, L'Arboratoire, follows the same principles in its automatically annotated portion. A small treebank portion has been linguistically revised and consistency tested by Ane Dybro Johansen.

Clause level arguments (valency governed)    ^TOP^

The VISL system has 5 basic clause level functions: 1 central verbal constituent, also called Predicator (P), and 4 non-verbal satellite constituents, Subject (S), Object (O), Adverbial (A)and Predicative, also called Complement (C), which is bound not only by the verb, but also by either a subject or an object constituent.

The non-verbal constituents can either be valency bound arguments or free adjuncts. In the VISL convention, the latter are marked by prefixing the letter 'f' to the capital function letter. Free constituents are mostly adverbials or predicatives: 'A', for instance, is a (valency bound) argument adverbial, 'fA' a free adjunct adverbial.

Most valency bound clause level constituent classes can be subdivided further:

Subjects:

  • real subject (Sr), which is the unmarked default, an ordinary subject, in the nominative, if pronominal
  • formal/provisional subject (Sf), which is a 'il' or 'ce' filler for the subject place, later resumed by an Sr
  • situational subject (Ss), which is a formal subject without a matching Sr
Objects:
  • accusative or direct object (Od, Oacc), which is in the accusative case, if pronominal, and has to occupy the second object slot if combined with an indirect (dative) object.
  • dative or 'indirect' object (Oi, Odat), which is expressed by a pronoun in the dative case, and has to occupy the first object slot if combined with a direct (accusative) object. Since non-pronominal dative objects in French are prepositionalized, they will here, as a matter of mere convention, be tagged as prepositional-indirect objects (Op, Opiv).
  • prepositional object (Op, Opiv), which has the form of a prepositional phrase (pp) that cannot be substituted by a pronominal adverb - which would make it an adverbial (A). Op-pronouns are 'en' and 'y', or oblique case pronouns within pp's.
Predicative complements:
  • subject predicative/complement (Cs), which refers to and has gender/number agreement with the subject. Subject predicatives are valency bound by copula verbs ('être', 'devenir', 'sembler').  The prototypical form of predicatives is adjectival or nominal. In the FRAG system, adverbial predicatives get their own tag (As).
  • object predicative/complement (Co), which refers to and has gender/number agreement with an obligatory direct (accusative) object. Object predicatives are valency bound by verbs like 'rendre', 'considerer comme'. Object predicatives may have pp or acl from (with 'comme' or 'de'). After passivized verbs from this class, object complements will turn into subject complements (Cs).
  • subject adverbial (As) is an adverbial argument which predicates the subject. It can be regarded as a non-prototypical form of the subject predicative (Cs) with adverb- or pp-form, and can be form-tested by substitution with a pronominal adverb ('ici/là', 'ainsi', 'tant'). Subject adverbials are based on the valency of certain verbs ('être', 'habiter', 'aller', 'durer').
  • object adverbial (Ao) is an adverbial argument which predicates an obligatory direct (accusative) object. It can be regarded as a non-prototypical form of the object predicative (Co), with adverb- or pp-form. Object adverbials are based on the valency of verbs like ('envoyer', 'mettre'). One way of describing ACI and causative constructions is by assigning the accusative Od-function, and the infinitve(-clause) Ao-function ('voir qn danser ...', 'faire qn travailler ...'.
symbol category examples 
S (= Sr)
SUBJ
subject
subjekt
sujet (= sujet réel)
Claire dort.
Qu'est-ce que tu en penses.
Pierre, qui voulait être poli, gardait la silence.
Lisa et Jesper ont un petit chien.
Il est important de manger bien le matin.
Sf
F-SUBJ
formal (provisional) subject
formelt (foreløbigt) subjekt
sujet (formel ) prévisoire
sujet apparent
Il est bien étonnant qu'il ne soit pas encore venu.
C'est un ours qui a volé ton sac.
Ss (--> Sf)
S-SUBJ
situational subject
situativ subjekt
sujet (formel) situative
Il fait chaud.
Il s'agit d'un film noir.
Oacc/Od
ACC
direct (accusative) object 
direkte (akkusativ) objekt
objet direct
Pierre donne des fleurs a son amie.
Je crois que j'ai eu de la chance.
Comme vous pouvez le voir, ce chien ne fait du mal à personne.
Odat/Oi
DAT
dative object 
indirekte (dativ) objekt
objet datif/indirect
Prête-moi ta plume!
Opiv/Op
PIV
prepositional object 
præpositionsobjekt
objet prépositionel
Ça dépend du temps.
Pierre donne des fleurs a son amie.
Qu'est-ce que tu en penses?
As (--> Cs)
SA
subject adverbial
subjektsadverbial
complément adverbial  essentiel (du sujet)
habitez-vous?
Cette guerre vá durer longtemps / plusieurs années.
Ao (--> Co)
OA
object adverbial 
objektsadverbial
complément adverbial essentiel (d'objet)
La France n'a pas envoyé de soldats au Golfe.
Pour la première fois, il l'a vu danser.
Cs
SC
subject complement 
subjektsprædikativ
attribut (essentiel) du sujet
Il est malade aujourd'hui.
Dans les vacances, il travaillait comme guide. (fCs).
Co
OC
object complement 
objektsprædikativ
attribut (essentiel) de l'objet
La France considère comme très dangereuses les vaches anglaises.
Les vacances le rendent toujours plus vif.
Elle s'appelle Michelle.
Michael mange ses poissons crus (fCo).
P/V predicator
prædikator, verbal
prédicat verbal (groupe verbal)
Anne est jolie.
Le vendredi, Giselle doit se lever tôt. (discontinuous)
Vous allez voir des jolis hippopotames en Afriques.


Clause level adjuncts (not valency governed)    ^TOP^

These are predicatives (complements) and adverbials not valency bound by the predicator. The basic distinction between free adverbials and free (subject) predicatives is that the former (fA) have adverb- or pp- or clause-form and can be substituted by pronominal adverbs, while the latter (fC) have adjective- or participle-form and can be moved into the subject np. Another distinction is semantic - adverbials (fA) add location, direction, intensity, modality etc. to a given state of affairs, while predicatives attribute features to a subject (or object).

Agent of passive constituents are here termed passive adjuncts (fApass). They are an optional semantic representation of what would be the subject in the active sentence, and not valency bound like objects normally are. Statement predicatives (fCsta) and vocatives (fCvoc) are not really syntactic dependents of the predicator, and thus not clause constituents in the same way as other adjuncts, but for the sake of notational coherence, they are here accepted into the free predicative group. Likewise, some extrasentential adverbs ('naturellement', 'probablement') and interjections have been forced into the free adverbial group (fA).
 
symbol category examples 
fA
ADVL
adjunct adverbial 
adverbialadjunkt
complément adverbial non-essentiel
Lentement, l'oiseau se rapprochait.
Les amis allaient à la plage (As) tous les jours (fA).
Elle n'aime pas les chiens.
Pour un professeur (1), il parle beaucoup trop vite (2).
fC (fCs)
PRED
adjunct predicative 
prædikativadjunkt
attribut non-essentiel (du sujet)
epithète détachée du sujet
Quand il fait nuit, elle nage nue.
Fatigués et desillusionés, ils s'en vont.
Petit Pierre l'a construit lui-même.
fApass
[PASS]
passive adjunct 
passivadjunkt
complément du passif
La ville a été détruite par des avions ennemis.
fCsta
S<
statement predicative 
sætningsprædikativ
attribut de proposition
La terre est ronde, - fait qui n'est pas étonnant  pour ceux qui ont vu les lunes de Jupiter.
fCvoc
VOK
vocative adjunct 
vokativadjunkt
vocatif
Soyez plus précis, Peter
Oh Dieu, sauvez-moi de ces gens!
fAtop
TOP
topic constituent
topic-konstituent
constituent de thème
Maria, elle est sympatique. (subject topic)
Peter, je le connais bien. (object topic)


Subordination and coordination (function)    ^TOP^

Subordinators (SUB), like relatives and interrogatives, head finite (rarely, averbal) subclauses, the difference being, that relatives and interrogatives (also) have real constituent functions in the subclause (the ones that they would also have in a main clause), while the subordinator function tag (SUB) is used, where no other function applies, as is the case for subordinating conjunctions.

A similar "dummy" function is needed for the clause body of averbal clauses (verb-less clauses), which in French only can be headed by very few subordinating conjunctions ('bien_que'), relative adverbs ('où') and conjunctions with predicative usage ('que', 'comme'). The symbol SUB< may be used for the clause body of an averbal clause (i.e. all but the clause header), unless, of course, one decides to assign a "real" clause function based on ellipsis ("imagining" what it would be if there were a predicator), like Cs (subject predicative) for 'possible' in 'où possible, ...'.

Coordinated units (cu), or paratagmata (par), consist of a coordinator (CO) binding together 2 or more conjuncts (CJT). Prototypical coordinators are coordinating conjunctions, but they can also be expressed as punctuation (, / -). Conjuncts within the same paratagma usually have matching form and function, i.e. noun groups are co-ordinated with noun groups, direct objects with direct objects etc., but - in principle - everything goes. Consider, for instance, the form mismatch in 'elle est jeune (adj) et sans scrupules (pp)', and the crossed/combined function-match in 'il a acheté un chien pour son fils et un chat pour sa fille.'
 
symbol category examples 
SUB
SUB
subordinator 
subordinator, subjunktional
subordinateur
S'il ya une fête, nous y allons.
Cette semaine, nous avons appris qu'on ne peut pas relâcher, quand on a peur de quelque chose.
Le directeur a menacé dimanche après-midi de claquer la porte.
(SUB<)
AS<
[averbal] clause body 
sætningsstamme
tronc de proposition
possible, nous aiderons. (Cs)
Il y avait autant d'opinions que de délégués. (Od?)
CO
CO
coordinator 
koordinator, konjunktional
coordinateur
Nous avons acheté 10 pommes et 20 oranges.
Ou vous m'aidez, ou nous ne finirons jamais.
CJT conjunct
konjunkt
conjoint
Ni Grammy ni Michael parlent français.
Est-ce que tu prefères ton thé avec du sucre ou sans?


Group level constituent function    ^TOP^

The VISL system uses three form levels: clause (cl) , group (g) and word form (w). The first two are complex forms with more than one constituent. Clauses have usually a verbal constituent (predicator), or - where not - at least a clause header (subordinator or relative), while groups don't.

At the group level, two main categories are distinguished, heads (H) and dependents (D), inspired by a dependency grammar perspective. Dependents can be modifiers (not valency bound) or arguments (valency bound). According to the type of heads and dependents involved, 4 structurally different group types can be distinguished:

  • nominal group (np), which allows articles as modifier dependents ('les', 'une', 'des'). This is a hypotactic group with the prototypical head being a noun. However, almost all word forms can head an np, given the right premodifier ('les riches', 'chacun d'entre nous').
  • adjectival groups (adjp) and adverbial groups (advp), two structurally indistinguishable group types, that can be defined as groups allowing intensifiers as modifier dependents ('très'). These groups are hypotactic, with the typical head being an adjective, a participle or an adverb. However, other heads (even complex heads) are allowed, given the right premodifier ('il se sentent très contre la guerre', 'au_moins 5').
  • prepositional group (pp), which is syntacticallt headed (and valency-represented) by a preposition, but semantically represented by the prepositions argument. This group type is often categorized as katatactic (without a head), since neither the preposition nor its argument can replace the whole group.
  • verb group (vp), which consists of a chain of dependency-linked verbs, of which the last - in French - is the main verb (Vm), and the first may be finite (tense or mode inflected). All but the last verb are called auxiliaries (Vaux). Infinitives can have an infinitive marker (INFM) to the left. In French, this function is used for 'à' and 'de' where they appear with auxiliaries ('aller à', 'venir de'), while prepositions before infinitives outside auxiliary constructions are tagged as clause subordinators (SUB). Verb groups may be discontinuous, with interfering adverbs or pronouns ('il ne l'a pas dit', 'nous avons dû tout construire de nouveau'). In questions, the subject may split a verb chain ('a-t-il fait des achats?'). In a simplified analysis, the idiosyncracies of verb chain structure may be circumvented by treating its elements as clause level constituents.
As can be seen from the above definitions, group types are structurally more dependent on dependents than heads, which is why we will specify group type related subcategories for dependents, but not for heads. In this vein, DN (adnominal dependent) is used in np's, DA (adverbial dependent) in adjp's/advp's and DP (argument of preposition) in pp's, - where necessary, with the addition of arg or mod for argument and modifier function, respectively. A special distinction is made for "loose" (often punctuation-separated) postnominal dependents: DNapp (apposition) is used for names and definite np's that semantically help define an np-head, while DNc (predicative adnominal) is used for attributive material and relative clauses with otherwise similar "loose" postnominal function. The difference between DNc and a clause level predicative (C) is that the former is part of and right-adjacent to an np, while the latter is syntactically isolated from, or to the left of the (subject) np it predicates. Vp's have their own idiosyncratic constituents, Vaux (auxiliary) and Vm (main verb), plus possibly Vpart (verb-integrated particles) and the 1-member-category of INFM (infinitive marker).

The first three, non-verbal group types can also be premodified by certain focus or operator adverbs ('surtout', 'seulement', 'même', 'ikke'), that are not typical of a specific group, and do not really attach to the group's head, but rather to the group as a whole, forming a kind of meta-group (np', ap', pp'). At present, this distinction is not yet fully integrated in the open corpus Danish VISL system.
 
symbol category examples 
H - D head <-> dependent 
kerne <-> dependent
tête <-> dependent
un(D) petit (D) chien (H)
sans (H) argent (D)
dimanche (H) après-midi (D)
D
 

 

DN
DNmod
DNarg
>N, N<
adnominal adject 
adnominaladjekt
dependent adnominal
(H: noun or pronoun)
tous (D) les (D) jours (modifiers)
le monsieur de Paris (pp-modifier)
une position bien difficile (adjp-modifier)
le premier ministre Mr Moutalibov (prop-modifier)
la guerre contre la faim (argument)
La chasse aux castors est interdit au Danemark. (argument)
DNapp
APP
(adnominal) apposition 
(nominal-) apposition
apposition
Le président du CSA, Mr Jacques Boutet, ...
DNc
N<PRED
predicative adject 
prædikativadjekt
prédicat adnominal
La femme, jeune et bronzée, paraissait ...
un quartier à l'est de la ville, aéré par trois espaces verts, ...
3,7 milliards de yens (148 milliards de francs)
Jacques a visité l'imprimerie, qui lui avait envoyé un devis.
Michel Dubois (UDF) ...
DA
DAmod
DAarg
>A, A<
adverbial adject 
adverbialadjekt
dependent adverbial
(H: adjective, adverb or determiner)
très heureux (modifier)
trop de gens (argument)
fort comme un ours (modifier)
un pays riche en pétrole (argument)
DAcom
KOMP<
argument of comparative 
komparativkomplement
complément (du) comparatif
une politique aussi soutenue qu'insidieuse
il est plus grand que son frère
DP
DParg
DPmod
P<, >P
argument of preposition 
præpositionsargument
régime (complément de préposition)
à la maison (argument)
par ici (argument)
sans hésiter une seconde (argument)
même en Italie, il fait froid ce printemps. (modifier, focus marker) 


The verb group (verb chain)    ^TOP^
 
symbol category examples 
Vm
[FMV (1)]
[IMV (2)]
main verb 
hovedverbum
verbe principal
Que vous-avez fait hier?
Le chaînes publiques risquent (1) d'être (2) les premières victimes.
Vaux
[FAUX (1)]
[IAUX (2)]
auxiliary 
hjælpeverbum
verbe auxiliar
Nous avons (1) (2) tout construire de nouveau.
INFM
INFM
infinitive marker
infinitivsmærke
marque de l'infinitif
Pierre vient de voir son amie.
AUX< argument of auxiliary
auksiliarkomplement
complément auxiliar
La maison a été (1) vendue (2).


Group forms    ^TOP^
 
symbol category examples 
np np
propp
pronp
noun phrase 
nominalgruppe, nominalsyntagme
groupe nominal
(D-test: article +)
Il boit un bon vin blanc. (np)
La France construit des trains de grande vitesse. (np)
Nous autres du Québec n'aimons pas ça. (pronp)
adjp adjp
detp
adjective group
adjektivsyntagme
groupe adjectival
(D-test: très +)
Tout le monde paraissait très heureux. (adjp)
advp adverbial group
adverbialsyntagme
groupe adverbial
(D-test: très +)
Il parle trop vite. (advp)
vp verb phrase 
verbalsyntagme
groupe verbal
(H: main verb [semantically] or 1. auxiliary [dependency grammar])
Nous sommes descendus à la bonne station.
Grammy a toujours voulu se baigner dans un lac danois.
pp prepositional phrase 
præpositionssyntagme
groupe prépositionel
(H: preposition)
Dans la forêt, il y a un menhir.
une place pour quatre nuits.


Clause forms and parataxis    ^TOP^

Clauses are complex constituents that feature at least one verb or - where not - a clause header particle (subordinating conjunction or relative). According to the type of verbal constituent - or its absence - , three clause types are distinguished:

  • finite clause (fcl), with a finite verb predicator, or a predicator verb chain headed by a finite auxiliary. In French, finite subclauses are introduced by a subordinator or a relative/interrogative constituent, if they function as a constituent of another clause.
  • non-finite clause (icl), with a non-finite verb predicator, or a predicator verb chain headed by a non-finite auxiliary. Infinitive clauses (unless co-ordinated) have an infinitive marker or prepositional subordinator before the leading infinitive, and possibly also light adverbial or pronominal material (e.g. 'pour ainsi le transformer ....'). French participal clauses have no leading subordinator, but may otherwise integrate ordinary clause constituents. With the exception of passivised absolute participle constructions, French non-finite clause do not feature subjects.
  • averbal clause (acl), which lacks a verbal constituent, and consists of a subordinator ('bien_que') or relative adverb ('où') and a clause body or subordinator argument (SUB<). The latter may be assigned a more specific function (Cs, S, fA) by "reading" the clause as a regular deep structure "verbal" clause.
A special type of complex form are coordinated units (cu), also called paratagmata (par), which are neither groups nor clauses, but can contain both. Parataxis joins conjunct constituents (CJT), mediated by co-ordinators (CO), as described in the section on coordination and subordination. Note that CJT and CO are functions, while cu/par is a form.
 
symbol category examples 
cl fcl
FS-
finite (sub)clause 
finit (led)sætning
proposition finite
Je ne crois pas qu'il soit vrai.
Dis-moi où je peux acheter une guinness!
icl
ICL-
non-finite (sub)clause 
infinit (led)sætning
proposition infinite
Le ministère demande aux aspirants de remplir un dossier.
acl
AS-
averbal (sub)clause 
averbal (led)sætning
proposition averbal
Ici, on boit plus du vin que de la bière.
Si possible, j'en voudrais un autre.
Comme patron, il a le droit de décider lui-même, quand il va travailler.
cu compound unit 
paratagme
paratagma, groupe coordinée
Dans sa maison, il y avait trois télés et quatre ordinateurs.
Ni l'un ni'lautre nous ont aidés.
Elle rêvait de visiter Rome et vivre l'histoire.



Word classes (morphological form)    ^TOP^
 

Inflexion potential of inflecting word classes

 
gender
number
case
degree
person
tense
mode
 
M, F, nG
S, P, nN
NOM, DAT, ACC, PIV
COM
(POS)
1, 2, 3
PR, IMPF, PS, FUT
IND, SUBJ, COND, IMP
noun N
+*
+
         
proper noun PROP
(+*)
           
adjective ADJ
+
+
 
+ (few)
     
pronoun
personal
PRON PERS
+
+
+
 
+*
   
determiner
PRON DET
+
+
         
independent
PRON INDP
+*
+*          
verb
finite
VFIN  
 +
   
 +
+
+
infinitive
INF              
past participle
PCP2
+
+
         
present participle
PCP1
 +
+
         
adverb ADV      
+ (few)
     

+ = inflects (word form category), +* = lexeme category
nG = no/underspecified gender, nN = no/underspecified number, nD = no/underspecified definiteness

Word class categories and examples    ^TOP^

symbol category examples 
n
N
noun 
substantiv, nomen
nom
arbres n ("arbre" M P)
femme n ("femme" F S)
communistes n ("communiste" nG P)
prop
PROP
proper noun 
proprium
nom propre
Napoléon_Bonaparte prop (M S)
France prop (F S)
États-Unis prop (M P)
adj
ADJ
adjective
adjektiv
adjectif
jolies adj ("joli" F P)
troisième adj ("troisième" <num-ord> nG S)
meilleur adj ("bon" COM nG S)
v
V
v-fin
PR
IMPF
[VFIN]
finite verb 
finit verbum
verbe finit
dort v-fin ("dormir" 3S PR IND)
soyez v-fin ("être" 2P PR SUBJ)
mange v-fin ("manger" 1/3S PR IND)
v-fin ("manger" 2S IMP)
v-inf ("manger" 1/3S PR SUBJ)

aimerons v-fin ("aimer" 1P FUT IND)
v-inf
INF
infinitive 
infinitiv
infinitif
répondrev-inf ("répondre")
v-pcp2
PCP2
past participle 
perfektum participium
participe passé
achetés v-pcp2 (M P STA) [attributive]
v-pcp2 (AKT) [verbal]
v-pcp2 (PAS) [verbal]
v-pcp1
PCP1
present participle
præsens participium
participe du présent, gérondif
en relançantv-pcp1
ayant mangé la pomme, ... v-pcp1
bien que perdant toujours, ... v-pcp1
art
ART
article 
artikel
article
la table art ("la" <def> F S)
des forêts mervilleux art ("de+les" <idf> M P)
du vin art ("de+le" <def> M S)
pron pron-pers
PERS
personal pronoun 
personligt pronomen
pronom personel
je pron-pers ("je" 1S NOM)
lui pron-pers ("lui" 3S DAT)
la pron-pers ("le" <fem>  3S ACC)
pron-det
DET
determiner pronoun 
adjektivisk pronomen
pronom determinatif ("adjectif")
ta pron-det ("ton" <poss> <2S> F S)
ces pron-det ("ce" <dem> nG P)
tout pron-det ("tout" <quant> M S)
        adv ("tout" <aquant>)
pron-indp
INDP
independent pronoun 
substantivisk pronomen
pronom indépendent ("substantif")
rien pron-indp ("rien" <quant> )
en pron-indp ("en" PIV)
qui pron-indp ("qui" <rel> NOM/PIV)
            pron-indp ("qui" <interr> NOM/PIV)
adv
ADV
adverb 
adverbium
biord
partout adv ("partout" <aloc>)
souvent adv ("souvent" <atemp>)
vite adv ("vite"), effectivement ("effectivement" <deadj>) [modals]
ici, là, maintenant adv (<dei>) [pronominals, deictics]
très, assez, trop adv (<aquant>) [intensifiers]
où, quand adv (<rel>) [relatives]
où, pourquoi adv (<interr>) [interrogatives]
ne ... pas, même adv (<setop>) [operators]
num
NUM
numeral 
numeralia
talord
deux num (<card> P)
17 num (<cif> <card> P) 
deuxième adj (<num-ord> M S)
prp
PRP
preposition 
præposition
forholdsord
contre prp
au_lieu_de prp
in
IN
interjection 
interjektion
interjection
allô! in 
conj conj-s
KS
subordinating conjunction 
subordinerende konjunktion
conjonction de subordination
que conj-s
si conj-s 
car conj-s ("car" <kc>)
conj-c
KC
coordinating conjunction 
koordinerende konjunktion
conjonction de coordination
et conj-c
mais conj-c 
conj-p
KP
predicative conjunction
prædicerende konjunktion
conjonction prédicatif
que conj-p
comme conj-p
infm
INFM
infinitive marker 
infinitivsmærke 
marque de l'infinitif
de infm 
pu punctuation 
tegnsætningstegn 
ponctuacion
, pu [komma] 


Utterance function
 
symbol category examples 
UTT STA
QUE
COM
EXC
utterance
ytring
énonciation
Ça ne fait rien. [statement]
Avez-vous peur de ce brute? [question]
Attends! [command]
pauvre de moi! [exclamation] 
STA statement 
udsagn
phrase déclarative
La terre est ronde comme une orange.
Merci.
 
QUE question 
spørgsmål
phrase interrogative
Y a-t-il une boulangerie par ici?
COM command
ordre
phrase impérative/injonctive
Arrête!
Pourriez-vous m'aider, s'il vous plaît?
 
EXC exclamation 
udråb
phrase exclamative
Mon Dieu!
Vive le roi!

Valency tags for verbs (Eckhard Bick)

Verbal valency potential is marked in CG-output as secondary tags, for instance:


vt = transitive verb
vi = intransitive verb
ve = ergative verb
vdt = ditransitive verb with dative
PRP^vp = verb with prepositional valency (PRP marking the preposition in question)
PRP^vtp = ditransitive verb with prepositional valency
vk = kopula verb
vtk = transitive kopula verb
x = auxiliary with infinitive
xt = ACI- or causative verb
va+LOC/DIR/QUANT = transitive verb with adverbial valency
vta+LOC/DIR = ditransitive verb with adverbial valency

 


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