University of Southern Denmark
Danish -> Info -> Udkast til oversigt over grupper  Visual Interactive Syntax Learning  
 
Danish VISLSentence AnalysisEdutainmentCorporaDictionaries

Printer-friendly version

 

Semantic Prototypes: Notes on Definition and Explanations (work in progress)

General Principles
Tagging is based on the notion of prototype, an (idealized) best instance of a given category. 

Discrete Tagging
The individual tags are independent tags, i.e. they are not used in a sense where <tag1> is further specified by <tag2>. In a few instances, however, this principle of discrete tagging has been violated, but at present these instances have been left in the corpus.

Underspecification
Tags which underspecify a given noun have been applied in the following cases: 1) Missing knowledge. A more specific tag has not been applied as the specific nature/meaning is not known. (2) The noun has several meanings/uses, e.g. "brød" (bread) which has both a count and a mass meaning:  ”Hun købte 3 brød.”, ”Vil du have mere brød?”.

Hyperonyms and Hyponyms
Where hyperonyms have been defined, the relevant hyponyms can be moved to this group by way of implication. Apparent doubletagging appears where necessary due to several, discrete meanings, e.g. ”thorax_N <an><anent>”.

Polysemy

At this stage, polysemy - a noun with several different, discrete meanings - has only been partially marked in the corpus. Polysemy can be marked on the individual word through the use of several tag categories. Most polysemy relations are, however, marked at (sets of) tag category level. Well established sets of polysemy relations are e.g. (1) animal - food, (2) geographical location - human group, (3) fruit - plant, (4) human group - institution - building, (5) semiotic artifact - information.

Reading the Table
The table is divided into three columns:
Column 1: Tag category.
Column 2: Definition, (possible) explanation(s) and comment(s) on the tag category.
Column 3: Examples of the tag category.

In some instances a set of related tag categories is followed by graphics and additional comments and explanations, e.g. the set of <an> related categories (see here). The graphics in general provide a simple illustration of the tag set taxonomy along with decision procedure comments and the like. The graphics currently available are not fully developed, nor are graphics available for every tag set.

Animate human
, cf. also <inst>

H

Human being
+count
+human

 

Hfam

Relative, family member
+count (prototypically)
+human
This category includes collective nouns, e.g. ”slægt”. These will typically have several tags, e.g. <Hfam><HH>.

afkom, fyrstedatter, forsørger, fætter, grandkusine, mor, plejeforælder, slægt, ægtefælle, ætling

Hideo

Follower/supporter of religion, politics, art etc.
+count
+human

altruist, ayatollah, egoist, evolutionist, kommunist, kubist, moralist, muslim, mystiker, purist, revanchist, skriftefader, Venstrekvinde

Hmyth

Mythical or fictional figure
+count
+human features
+supernatural features
This category includes collective nouns, e.g.: “engleskare”.

antikrist, drillenisse, engleskare, haltefanden, julemand, krigsgud, mosekone, spøgelse, supermand,  troldkone, tordengud, varulv, åndevæsen

Hnat

National, ethnic or geographically/based identity
+count
+human
This category has fuzzy borders with the <H> category, e.g. ”nigger”.

alsing, brønderslevbo, buskmand, chicano, EF-borger, fynbo, halvjøde, indlænding, hjemmetysker, jydetamp,  landsmand, litauer, squaw, tallerkenneger

Hprof

Profession
+count
+human
This category is often tagged <+n>. Some <n+> tags have been applied as well.

arkitekt

HH

Group of human beings
+count
+human
<+n>.
This category also includes firms, organisations etc. which are not defined as <inst>, i.e. which do not have a topological feature.
This category is normally not specified as to whether the group in question has a family, mythical, ideological etc. feature.

a-landshold, amatørkor, arbejderklasse, bestyrelse, delstatsregering, eksekutivkomite, fløjparti, fredskorps, hjælpetjeneste, idrætsklub, kokainmafia, kærestepar, køkkenpersonale, læserpublikum, marchorkester, musikforening, partyband, småborgerskab, talsmænd, trafikudvalg, tyende, tyvepak, åndsaristokratiet

Animate non-human, moving

A

Animal: hyperonym: underspecified category
+count
+animate
Many members of this category also have the feature <food>.

avlsdyr, dyr, handyr, jagtbytte, padde, lykkedyr, omstrejfer, udyr, ådselæder

AB

Bacterium, microorganism
The category has not been checked.

 

Adom

Domesticated animal, pet
+count
+animate
This tag normally appears with a specifying tag, i.e. this category violates the principle of discrete tagging. Some words even have tags of this type: <AA><Azo><Adom>.
The category includes a few collective nouns, e.g. ”svinehold”.
Some of the members in this category can appear with ”han/hun” pronouns in context.

angoraged, avlshoppe, droschehest, førerhund, kamel, køter, lam, marsvin, malkeko, samojede, svinehold, øfgris

Aent

Insect
+count
+animate
±flies
The category includes collective nouns, e.g. ”utøj”.
Some members of this category are also well established terms for humans, e.g. ”pissemyre”, ”stankelben”
This category can in general appear as <food> for <A>

borebille, humlebi, målerlarve

Aich

Fish, animals primarily living in water
+count
+animate
±swims
±gills
±food
The <food> tag has been added to prototypical (and known) foods.

brændegople, musling, sæl, torsk

Amyth

Mythical animal
+count
+animate features
+human features

drage, fantasidyr, midgårdsorm

Aorn

Bird
+count
+animate
± flies
The category includes collective nouns, e.g. ”høns”.
At the moment, atypical birds like ”pingvin”, ”struds”, ”emu” and ”kiwi” have been left in this category.

brevdue, duefalk, fjerkræ, grønspætte, gøgeunge, julegås, kylling, solsort

Azo

Animal which lives on the ground
+count
+animate
The category includes collective nouns.

beagle, brontosaurus, egern, gnaver, husmus, jerseykvæg, kronvildt, malkeko, primat, vaps, vildt

AA

Group of animals
±count/mass
+animate
This tag is followed by a more specific tag (<Azo>, <Aent> etc.) if possible.
ADJ
à ± PL.

bisværm, forspand, fuglevildt, hjord, hundekobbel, kobbel, sildestime, torskefangst, ynglebestand

Animate non-human; non-moving

B

Plant: hyperonym
Underspecified category.
+count.
+botanical

agave, begroning, bladplante, dyndurt, engelskgræs, foderplante, giftplante, græs, havplante, humle, novemberkaktus, siv, sukkulent, åkande

Bbush

Bush
+count
+botanical

egekrat, gyvel, merian, slåenbush

Bflo

Flower
+count
+botanical
The category also includes less prototypical flowers such as e.g. ”solsikke”.

amaryllis, gøgelijle, julerose, lotus, okseøje, orkideplante, solsikke

Btree

Tree
+count
+botanical
Any member of this category is also automatically a member of the category
<mat>.

balsatræ, bjergfyr, palme

BB

Group of plants
+count
+botanical
This tag is also used for places which are defined by its plantation.

bed, bevoksning, blomsterpark, fyrreskov, jordbærbed, jungle, mangrove, rækkehushave, spinatbed, tajga, troldeskov

 

 

 

fruit

Fruit, vegetable, nut, etc.
±count/mass (not specified)
+botanical
+edible
This category is also hyponym to  <food> and <B>.
”Der vokser ___ i min have/skoven/Afrika.”

blomkål, hvidløg, majs, okra, selleri

fruit-c

Fruit, vegetable, nut, etc.
+count
+botanical
+edible
Hyponum to <food> and <B>.

abrikos, bittermandel, kartoffel, grøntsag, ribs, foderroe

fruit-m

Fruit, vegetable, nut, etc.
+mass
+botanical
+edible
Hyponym to <food> and <B>.
Very small cateory. Only four morphological (*) <fruit-m> have been tagged. The other tags are based on an evaluation of prototypical usage.

*citrus, *persille, *spinat, *yams, citrongræs, dild, kinaløg, pibeløg, purløg

Ad <fruit>
This category includes atypical <fruit>, e.g. ”dild”, ”svampe”, ”kartofler”, ”nødder”, ”foderroe”.
No distinction is made between human or animal food.
This category does not include pieces of fruit as these do not grow anywhere, e.g. ”appelsinbåd”. Such nouns are categorized as <food-c>.
It still has not been decided whether ”hvede”, ”rug”, ”hørfro” etc. ought to be categorized as <fruit>: ”Der gror hvede på marken.”

Polysemy relationship: <fruit> ↔ <B>
Hyperonyms: <B>, <food>

The -c and –m tagging is based on the following prototypical usage:
(1) _____                         står flot i år.

(2) Vil du have               _   ____ med hjem?
If both taggings are possible – or the matter has been left undecided
à <fruit>
If a word as has been tagged as either –c or –m, this tagging does not exclude another usage than the one designated. If one moves up the simple <fruit> hierarchy, both readings (-c and –m) are possible.

Topologicals (mostly concrete, non-moving)

an

Anatomy: not specified
+concrete
±human 
This category has not been checked.

clitoris, haleparti, hjerteregion, håndled, kønsåbning, mellemfod, mundhule, saltkar, tandkødsrand, åndehul

anfeat

Anatomical feature
±count/mass
±human
+discrete
”Man har heller har ikke ____.”
The category has been partly retagged with –c and –m, giving the tags <anfeat-c> and <anfeat-m>.
 Nogle kan evt. flyttes til <an>.
The following words and words in which they appear have been tagged as <anfeat> as default: ”frisure”, ”kind”, ”næse”, ”øre”, ”hud”, ”hår” (with exceptions), ”ansigt”, ”fjæs”, ”skæg”´etc.

amorbue, ansigt, braknæse, dievorte, fingeraftryk, filipens, gedeskæg, hudlap, hestehale, kirsebærmund, næserod, rokketand, talgknop, tommerfingernegl, ørenhår

anmov

Movable anatomical parts
+count
±human

ankel, arm, drengekrop, dyrekrop, hjulben, numse, rumpet, tentakel, tommelfinger, vrist

anorg

Organ
Inkluderer også muskler, sener, kirtler, årer, væv, marv og lign. atypiske ”organer”.
±count/mass
±human
This category also includes muscles, tendons, glands, veins, marrow and other atypical organs.
Words of this type: ”kønsorgan, ”parringsorgan” etc. are placed in this category.

balanceorgan, biceps, bitestikel, blindtarm, bruskvæv, bugspytkirtel, lillehjerne, lymfekar   

anost

Bone
+count
± human

falanks, fodrodsben, hofteled, kranievæg, kæbeben, menneskeknogle, rygsøjle, rørknogle, taphvirvel, underekstremitet

 

 

 

anbot

Plant anatomy.
±count/mass
+concrete
±edible

bananblad, bladribbe, bægerblad, frøkappe, grankogle, limeskal, mynteblad, selleritop, tobaksblad

anent

Insect anatomy
±inner/outer features

brod, dækvinge, flueben, thorax, vinge

anich

Fish anatomy.
±inner/outer features

blækspurttearm, gatfinne, gælle, hvaltand, skæl, stenbiderrogn

anorn

Bird anatomy.
±inner/outer features

andedun, fjerdragt, hønsetarm, kråse, ravnenæb, ørneklo

anzo

Animal anatomy
±inner/outer features
A few words in this category also have a <food> tag.

abehånd, dyrehår, dækhår, hestehale, kode, mellemmave, slangehoved, snabel, sneglehus, æselryg


<an> and subcategories
<an> can be divided into two kinds of anatomical features: (1) anatomical features  based on types (human/animate and plant) and (2) anatomical features based on anatomical function.

The two kinds of anatomical features (tags) are not equivalent, as the anatomical features based on types have matching generic tags (<Azo>, <Aorn> etc.), whereas such matching tags do not exist for the anatomical tags based on function, as these are independent of type in this connection. A system with more specific anatomical tags such as e.g. <anent-mov>, <anent-org> etc. has been ignored here due to ease of processing and desired level of distinction.

The anatomical functions are primarily +human in this corpus. An <anmov> tag is thus underspecified to a certain degree, as its most important trait is +anatomical movable and not type. <anmov> can thus be applied to a word which is +anatomical movable for several t ypes.

The different anatomical tags can be summarized like this:


<an> is thus ahyperonym for the types as well as the functions.

Topologicals (mostly concrete, non-moving)

build

Building, structure.
+count
+concrete
+humanmade
The tag may denote a single building or structure, a unit of buildings or structures or part of a unit of some kind, e.g. ”lejlighed”
”Man kan gå ud og ind af ____.”

adelsgods, blokbebyggelse, farm, fjeldhytte, fyrtårn, hacienda, iglo, laptelt, lavbro, længe, shelterdæk, triumfbue, viadukt, wigwam

con

Container
+concrete
+count
Members of this category can appear in the following context:
{num+} con {<+af>
à denotes material/agent; {<+med>} à denotes content; {+s}. 
Cf. these examples.:
”3 flasker sprit”. (content)
”3 flasker af glas”. (material)
”3 flasker med grøn sodavand”. (content)

Some members of this category may be considered unusual containers. However, the tagging is based on a container function as well as the ability to appear in the context given above.

aljebeholder, benzindunk, blækhus, cognacglas, flaske, flyttekasse, grøntsagsskuffe, indkøbstaske, junge, kagetallerken, kop, lammelærke, penalhus, pilekogger, postsæk, potte, ransel, rygsæk, skraldespand, stenkar, trækasse, øsekar

dir

Direction
The category has not been checked.

 

inst

Institution
+human agent
+topological

 

L

Location/topological place
Unspecificied.
The category has not been checked.

 

Lcover

Cover location
The category has not been checked.

 

Lh

Humanmade location.
+concrete
+humanmade
The category has not been checked.

 

Lmyth

Mythical location
+abstract

lykkeland, parnas, perleport, underverden

Lpath

Path, road etc.
+concrete
±humanmade

 

Lpic

Picture location
Dubious catergory: has not been checked.

 

Lstar

Star, asteroid, planet
+concrete
The category has not been checked

 

Lsurf

Surface location
The category has not been checked

 

Ltip

Tip location
The category has not been checked.

 

Ltop

Natural location
+concrete
+3-dimensional
The category has not been checked.

 

Ltrap

Trap location
The category has not been checked.

 

Lwater

Water location.
+concrete
±humanmade
A place where it is possible to swim (in principle).

badested, fjord, geyser, indsø, mergelgrav, reservoir, stræde, svømmebad, vandpyt, yngledam, å

opening

Opening/object with opening
[xx missing]
Refers to the opening as well as the object in which the opening is, e.g. ”vindue”, ”bilrude”, ”dør”.
The following words and words in which they appear have been tagged <opening> as default:: ”
dør”, ”port”, ”rude”, ”vindue”
The category has not been checked.

 

sit

Situation
+abstract
[xx missing]
The following words and words in which they appear have been tagged <sit> as default
: ”fejde”, ”kamp”, ”krise”, ”opgør”, ”oprør”, ”opstand”, ”strejke”, ”strid”

 

wea

Weather
±count/mass
The category has not been checked.

 

wea-c

Weather
+count
The category has not been checked.

 

wea-m

Weather
+mass
The category has not been checked.

 

wea-rain

Weather: precipitation
The category has not been checked.

 

wea-wind

Weather: wind
The category has not been checked.

 


Concrete, moving

V

Vehicle: unspecified hyperonym
+count
+concrete
+humanmade

befordringsmiddel, benzinsluger, ekspres

Vair

Airborne vehicle
+count
+concrete
+humanmade
+airborne
±machine
Not all airborne vehicle can carry passengers, e.g. ”tv-satellit, ”drone”.

fragtfly, raket, ufo

Vground

Ground vehicle
+count
+concrete
+humanmade
+wheels
± machine
Not all ground vehicles can carry vehicles, e.g. ”plæneklipper”
”Han kører med/i ____.”

cykel, dollargrin, fodervogn, hyrevogn, løbehjul, plæneklipper

Vwater

Water vehicle
+count
+concrete
+humanmade
±machine

bilfærge, enerkajak, ubåd

VV

Group of vehicles
+count
+concrete
+humanmade
The category generally violates the principle of discrete tagging, i.e. a <VV> tag will not appear on its own if it is possible to specify the group in question as e.g. <Vwater>.

flotille, flåde, armada


Concrete, non-moving (+movable)

cc

Concrete object
+count
+concrete
+natural
The category has not been checked.

 

cc-h

Concrete object: humanmade
+count
+concrete
+humanmade
The category has not been checked.

 

cc-fire

Fire object
+count[ xx - not checked]
+concrete
±natural/humanmade
The category has not been checked.

 

cc-org

Organic object
+count [xx not checked]
+concrete
+natural
An organic object created by other organics, e.g. “æg”.
The category has not been checked.

 

cc-stick

Stick object
+count
+concrete
+natural
The category has not been checked.

 

cc-round

Round object
+count
+concrete
The category has not been checked.

 

cm

Mass
+concrete
+natural
The category has not been checked.l

 

cm-h

Mass: humanmade
+concrete
+humanmade
The category has not been checked.

 

cm-liq

Liquid
+concrete
+natural
+liquid
The category has not been checked.

 

cm-liq-h

Liquid: humanmade
+concrete
+humanmade
The category has not been checked.

 

cm-gas

Gas
+concrete
+natural
The category has not been checked.

 

cm-gas-h

Gas: humanmade
+concrete
+humanmade 
The category has not been checked.

 

clo-?

Accessories
±count/mass
+concrete
+for humans 
à <cc-h>
A few members of this category are ambiguous as to use: ”en dykkerbrille”/”et par dykkerbriller”.
The distinction between <clo-?> and <cloH> is primarily based on size. However, ”hat” is typically categorised as <cloH>.

amulet, briller, hattenål, korkbælte, manchetknap, sølvsmykke, tandbøjle

cloA

Animal clothing
±count/mass
+concrete
+humanmade
+for animals
Hyperonym
à <cc-h>

buggjord, hestesko, loppehalsbånd, sadel, seletøj, skaberak, valrap

cloH

Human clothing
+count (a few +mass)
+concrete
+humanmade
+for humans
The distinction between <clo-?> and <cloH> is primarily based on size.
”Man kan tage ___ på/af.”
”Hun var iklædt ____.”
”Søren har 3 (par/sæt) ____ [sg./pl.].”

alpehue, badekåbe, barfodssandal, dress, flyverhjelm, gasmaske, harnisk, herrelingeri, jumper, kittel, kvindetøj, lærredsbukser, muffe, pigsko, sarong, waders

drink

Drink
±count/mass
+liquid

drikkevand, gedemælk, gudedrik, kildevand, mælk, næringsvæske, opkvikker, tevand, tæring, væske, tørstslukker

drink-h

Drink: humanmade
±count/mass
+liquid
+humanmade
Members of this category are unspecified as to count/mass, e.g. ”appelsinjuice_N <drink-h><cm-liq>” as it can appear in the following contexts:
(1) ”Han købte 3 appelsinjuice i Brugsen” (container/cc-h interpretation; notice the lack of number congruence on ”3 appelsinjuice”)
(2) ”Vil du have mere appelsinjuice?” (mass interpretation)

akvavit, brombærsaft, coca-cola, elskovsdrik, espresso, heksebryg, kaffefløde, maltøl, moselvin, pastis, slotsaftapning, æggesnaps

drink-c

Drink
+count
+liquid
The use of this tag is based on an exclusion of the following context: ”Vil du have mere ___?”.

drik, forfriskelse, forfriskning

drink-c-h

Drink: humanmade
+count
+liquid
+humanmade

bajer, hivert, hjertestyrkning, hybenkradser, kaffetår, opstrammer, mælkeprodukt, sjus, spids, tevandsknægt, æselspark

drink-m

Drink
+mass
+liquid

drikkelse, drikke, komælk, modermælk, råmælk

drink-m-h

Drink
+mass
+liquid
+humanmade

aftenkaffe, alkohol, honningmælk, mjød, rævepis, sake, spiritus, sprit, sprut, æggemælk


<drink>
Many words with the tag <drink> or <drink-h> also have a <cm-liq- tag, e.g. ”ananasjuice”, ”æblejuice” and other juices.

Many <drink> can be used both in a –c and a –m context. When used in a –c context there is not necessarily any number congruence between numeral and noun: ”Han købte 2 juice-ؔ.


Concrete, non-moving (+movable)

food

Food
±count/mass
+concrete
Food in this category is perceived as unprocessed, but it can be difficult to decide, e.g. ”hamburgerryg, ”filet”, ”haresteg”, ”schnitzel”, ”julegris”, ”kalvebrissel”.
Fish and birds are also listed in this category.
Many <food> also have an <an[..]> tag, e.g. ”andelever”, ”blæksputtearm”, ”dyrelår”. However, words like e.g.”culotte”, ”cuvette”, ”filet” do not. The tagging cannot at present be considered completely consistent.

andelår, frikadelle, kalkun, lam, rosmarin, t-bone-steak, vildt

food-h

Food: humanmade
±count/mass
+concrete
+humanmade

astakage, borgmesterstang, dyreragout, gedeost, hyggemiddag, kefir, sagovælling, vaniljeis

food-c

Food
+count
+concrete 
The use of <food-c> is based on the exclusion of <food-m> (mere ___).

ananasring, flodkrebs, hasselnøddekerne, hvidløgsfed, oksebøf, råvare

food-c-h

Food: humanmade
+count
+concrete
+humanmade

bolle, chokoladekanin, frankfurter, isterning, kåldolmer, mariekiks, spise, æggemad

food-m

Food
+mass
+concrete
In principle this tag has only been used when a use of <food-c> has been ruled out. However, at present this category has not been checked thoroughly enough for this to be consistent.

bacon, føde, hestekød, kogeflæsk, restemad

food-m-h

Food: humanmade
+mass
+concrete
+humanmade

atamon, grovmel, fars, havregrød, lørdagsslik, rysteribs, tarteletfyld


<food> and subcategories
The –m tagging includes (1) morphological mass nouns, e.g. ”grød”, ”mad”, [various spices], ”bacon”, ”mel”, ”hachis”, ”foder” and (2) nouns prototypically mass in usage, e.g. ”andefedt”, ”atamonpulver”, ”bihonning”, ”fars”, ”mysli”, ”salt”, ”marcipanmasse”.
Many spices are both –c and –m, e.g. ”basilikum”: the plant[c], the spice[m].

The tagging is based on the following –c (flere)/-m (mere) distinction:




Concrete, non-moving (+movable)

furn

Furniture
+count
+concrete
+humanmade
Hyperonym: <cc-h>

almuemøbel, bardisk, briks, drømmeseng, foldevæg, hundekurv, linnedskab, marokkopude, reol, solarium

mat

Material
+mass
+concrete
+natural
Hyponyms: <cc>, <cm>, <Btree>

andedun, bast, bjørneskind, fåreuld, hamp, hvaltand, kapok, korkeg, kvartsit, lambswool, læder, mahogni, naturmateriale, rav, rågummi, teak

mat-h

Material: humanmade
+mass
+concrete
+humanmade

acetatsilke, avispapir, celluloid, cement, drivtømmer, fleece, glasfiber, guldlame, karduspapir, krystalglas, limtræ, linned, møbelstof, pvc, stoppegarn, stål, tyl

mon

Monetary value
±count/mass
The following words and the words in which they appear have been tagged <mon> as default: ”
beskatning”, ”kapital”, ”overskud”, ”pension”, ”skat”, ”støtte”, ”tilskud”, ”underskud”.

 

cur

Currency
+count
±abstract/concrete
This category can refer to the actual object ifself or the value of the object.

belgierfranc, dollar, finmark, pundseddel, rand, real, rupee, unse, yen, zloty, øre

mon-c

Monetary value
+count
±abstract/concrete
Nouns which refer to a monetary value:.
”____ på 100(0) kr.”
The category includes stamps.

acontobeløb, affaldsafgift, billetpris, boligunderskud, entreindtægt, fedterøvstillæg, erstatningssum, fragtrate, giroindbetaling, lærerlønning, luftpostfrimærke, parkeringsbøde, refundering, skattelettelse, stjernegage, sølvbarre, tusse, valutabeholdning, vekselkurs

mon-m

Monetary value
+mass
±abstract/concrete
The following words and words in which they appear have been tagged <mon-m> as default: ”
arv”, ”bistand”, ”gæld”, ”løn”, ”penge”, ”porto”, ”told”.

arbejdsløn, bibliotekspenge, fædrenearv, kontanthjælp, læsegæld, porto, rentearbitrage, transittold, udviklingsbistand


<mon>
The taxonomy is not complete, nor can it satisfactorily deal with currency terms which are concrete, but not typical, e.g. ”blankocheck”, ”femhundredekroneseddel”.


Concrete, non-moving (+movable)

part

Part (of whole)
The category has not been checked.

 

sem

Semiotic
±abstract/concrete
The category has not been checked.

 

sem-l

Semiotic: can be heard (listened to)
The category has not been checked.

 

sem-r

Semiotic: can be read
+count
+concrete
+humanmade
Hyperoonym: <cc-h>
Members of this category can often be filled in or written, e.g. ”spørgeskema”.
The category also includes maps, e.g. ”kort”, ”landkort”.
The category has not been checked.

 

sem-w

Semiotic: can be seen (watched)
+count
±abstract/concrete
+humanmade
Hyperonym <cc-h>
The category has not been checked.

 

tool

Tool
+count
+concrete
+humanmade
Hyperonym: <cc-h>
The category has not been checked.

 

tool-cut

Tool for cutting, chopping
+count.
+concrete
+humanmade
Hyperonym: <cc-h>

afretterhøvl, barberkniv, bøddeløkse, havesaks, hugvåben, kokkekniv, krumsabel, savklinge, skæreblad, spid, springkniv, tomahawk

tool-mus

Tool for music/musical instrument
+count
+concrete
+humanmade
Hyperonym: <cc-h>
The category includes generic as well as specific terms.

alpehorn, basun, cello, elbas, flygel, kastagnet, klokkespil, lirekasse, luftgitar, stradivarius, trillefløjte, træblæseinstrument, xylofon

tool-sail

Tool for sailing
+count
+concrete
+humanmade
Hyperonym: <cc-h>
The category has not been checked.

 

tool-shoot

Tool for shooting
+count
+concrete
+humanmade
Hyperonym: <cc-h>
The category also includes toys used for shooting, e.g. ”vandpistol” and bows, e.g. ”langbue”.

armbrøst, automatvåben, jagtgevær, karabin, langbue, luftværnskanon, maskinpistol, skræmmevåben, slynge, snaphane, vandpistol

tool-tie

Tool for binding/tying
±count/mass.
+concrete
+humanmade
Hyperonym: <cc-h>
Both a –c and a –m use can be possible, e.g. “2 reb/mere reb”.

ankertov, gavebånd, hampreb, hundesnor, høstbindingsgarn, hårbånd, lænke, reb, snørebånd, sytråd, tøjr, wire


Abstract

ac

Abstract
+countt
+abstract
The following words and words in which they appear have been tagged <ac> as default: ”arbejde”, ”erhverv”, ”forløb”, ”job”, ”metode”, ”proces”, ”studie”, ”studium”, ”uddannelse”.
The category has not been checked

 

ac-cat

Abstract category
+count
+abstract
[xx missing]
The category has not been checked.

 

ac-sign

Abstract sign
+count
+abstract
The category has not been checked

 

am

Abstract
+mass
+abstract
This category has not been checked.

 

col

Colour
The category has not been checked.

 

conv

Convention
+count
+abstract
The category has not been checked.

 

f

Feature
+count
±abstract/concrete
The category is unspecified as to whether the feature in question is psychological or physical: can be both.

 

f-psych

Psychological/mental feature
±count/mass
+abstract
+human
This category is very varied. It has not been thoroughly checked yet.

affektion, afsavn, fortællekunst, nærtagenhed, frisind, fromhed, grundvandsinteresse, handlekraft, hjemlængsel, intuition, jeg-følelse, kækhed, martyrmine, melankolskhed, målbevidsthed, panik, realitetssans, sindelag, skriftkloghed, snakkelyst, uforståenhed, ædelmod

f-phys

Physical feature
±count/mass
±abstract/concrete
±humanmade
This category is very varied. It includes physical features which are not exclusively human, e.g. physical features on clothes and things.
At present the category is too varied and it needs to be further revised.

antændelsestemperatur, arrethed, asfaltboble, behårethed, boligstand, flydeevne, goldhed, isagtighed, isolationsevne, jakkelomme, kjolesøm, kontursting, kønhed, mugplet, pukkelryggethed, puld, skaktern, skorpe, slidstyrke, solmodenhed, vanskabthed, varmeledningsevne, vaskbarhed

f-phys-h

Physical human feature
±count/mass
±abstract/concrete
+human
+measurable/gradable
”Man er/har mere eller mindre _____.”
In this category no distinction is made as to whether a given feature has been acquired or is innate, e.g. ”fordrukkenhed” vs. ”hjulbenethed”.
The category is related to <anfeat> and <f-phys>. At present quite a number of words have <f-phys-h> as well as <f-phys>. 
Typical abstract derivations in this category are e.g. ”-hed” and ”-ing”.
”stemme” has been tagged <f-phys-h> as default.

altstemme, blegnæbbethed, ernæringstilstand, fordrukkenhed, følelsesløshed, hjulbenethed, høreevne, hårdtsårethed, kendermine, kondition, kropsvarme, kæmpeskikkelse, røntgenblik, skæggethed, smidighed, stamina, sult, trællemærke, øjenskygge


<f>
Note. <f> is unpecified as to whether the feature in question is psychological or physical. <f> is also unspecified as to whether the feature is ±human.

Abstract (cont.)

domain

Cognitive domain
+mass (prototypically)
+abstract
+can be studied
à domain-2
The following words and the words in which they appear have been tagged <domain> as default (with a few exceptions): ”filosofi”, ”forskning”, ”håndværk”, ”politik”, ”teknik”, ”terapi”, ”teori”, ”videnskab”.
”videnskab” is an atypical <domain>, as the prototypical agent cannot be found according to the pattern below:
terapi
à terapeut
fysik
à fysiker
videnskab
à?videnskabsmand?

aerodynamik, botanik, børnepsykiatri, drømmeforskning, edb-teknik, ejderpolitik, eskimologi, fagvidenskab, folkemedicin, fredsforskning, gruppeterapi, journalisme, medieformidling, motivationspsykologi,
patologi, samfundslære, strafferet, tekstteori, økonomi

f-right

Right, social property
[xx missing]
+abstract
Man har ____.
The category has not been checked.

 

geom

Geometrical form
+count
+abstract
The category has not been checked.

 

ism

Theory, style of art, religion etc..
+mass (prototypically)
+abstract
+can be studied
à domain-2
+timeaspect (”under barokken”, ”under kommunismen”)
±physical manifestation (especially styles of art, e.g. ”biedermeier”, ”ekspressionisme”)
<ism> has been set apart from <domain> primarily by the test that it does not appear naturally in the following contexts:
”Hun går til _________.”
”Hun har en grad i _______.”
Some categorisations are, however, problematic, e.g. ”avantgardisme”, ”klassekampteori”, ”konsensusteori”.

anarkisme, apartheid, biedermeier, humanisme, jesuitisme, kabbala, naturreligion, nazisme, rundbuestil, senmodernisme, shiisme, trosretning, voodoo, zen, økologi

ling

Language
±count/mass (generic vs.specific)
+abstract
+can be studied
à domain-2
This category includes general (generic) as well as specific terms.
Some atypical <ling> are at present in this category, and they may be moved to <repr> later, e.g. ”bogsprog”, ”datasprog”, ”filmsprog”, ”frisprog”, ”højniveausprog”, ”kommandosprog”, ”lokalsprog”, ”lovsprog”, ”maskinkode”, ”metasprog”, ”nysprog”, ”objektsprog”, ”omgangssprog”, ”programmeringssprog”, ”skriftssprog”, ”udgangssprog”, ”undervisningssprog”.

bantu, barnesprog, cockney, dialekt, farsi,  fingersprog, fremmedsprog,
hindi, kaudervælsk, nynorsk, rigsdansk, tonesprog, tegnsprog


 <domain>, <ism> and <ling>

domain-2
The hyperonym <domain-2> - which has not been applied in tagging – is based on the following prototypical contexts:



Abstract (cont.)

meta

Transparent metakategori.
+count
+abstract
+endocentric
Members of this category can appear in the following context:
{num+} <meta> + {<+af>; denotes content}.

afart, andenudgave, flig, fragment, pukkel, sammenrend, strejf, særversion, type, udpluk, undergruppe, væld

p

A cognitive act.
±count/mass
+abstract
+human
The distinction between cognitive act and cognitive result is not yet clear, and the tagging is thus not consistent.

anelse, association, associering, erindringsglimt, fornemmelse, forudanelse, indskydelse, skrupel, uråd

pp


The result of a cognitive act.
±count/mass
+abstract
+human
The category includes an <act> aspect: a human agent is required.
The category canalso refer to a physically concrete result
à <sem>.
”Situationen kræver mange/megen, store/stor(t) ______.”
The category also includes collective decisions, e.g. ”folketingsbeslutning”, ”EU-beslutning”.
The following words and words in which they appear have been tagged <pp> as default: ”beslutning”, ”bedømmelse”, ”fortolkning”, ”indsigt”, ”overvejelse”, ”planlægning”.

allroundviden, anfægtelse, atomstrategi, beslutning, barnedrøm, dagsordensforslag, EF-plan, erindring, fantasirejse, fejlfortolkning, forståelse, grundtanke, gætværk, historieteori, indbildning, jordspekulation, livsanskuelse, livsløgn, mødeplan, revurdering, påfund, samfundsopfattelse, standsfordom, virkelighedsflugt

percep

Perception
+count
+abstract
The category has not been checked.

 

percep-l

Perception: can be heard (listened to)
+count
+abstract
The category has not been checked.

 

percep-o

Perception: can be smelled (olfactory sense)
±count/mass
+abstract
This category is prototypically +abstract or of the form <cm-gas(-h)>, but it can also be <cc-h> with scent, e.g. ”roll-on”..

aroma, blomsterduft, fims, fis, gaslugt, moskus, odør, parfume, roll-on, stinkbombe, velduft

percep-t

Perception: can be felt (a touch).
±count/mass
+abstract

kildren, krablen, sitren, spjæt, spasme, sting, ve, ømhed

percep-taste

Perception: can be tasted
±count/mass
+abstract
Members of this category can be understod in a <f-phys> as well as <f-psych> sense.

beskhed, eftersmag, frugtsmag, løgsmag, nøddesmag, smagsoplevelse, smagsprøve, syrlighed, sødmefuldhed, sødme

percep-w

Perception: can be seen (watched)
±count/mass
+abstract

aftendæmring, efterårsmørke, flammeskær, gadebelysning, glimt, hallunication, himmellys, katastrofeblink, luftspejling, lys, lyssignal, messingglans, nødblus, synsbedrag, udsigt, vue


<percep> and subcategories


Abstract (cont.)

repr

Representation
+count [xx missing]
+abstract
The category has not been checked.

 

sick

Disease
±count/mass
+abstract
Disease is defined as any condition which may require treatment, including mental conditions.
No distinction is made between human, animal or plant diseases.
The category has not been finally revised. More members of this category are expected to be moved to either <sick-c> or <sick-m>.

 

sick-c

Disease
+count
Disease is defined as any condition which may require treatment, including mental conditions.
No distinction is made between human, animal or plant diseases.
The word ”sygdom” and words in which it appears are tagged <sick-c> as default.

alkoholsygdom, blist, brandbyld, fobi, HIV-infektion, hjernetumor, hvepsestik, krampetrækning, kvægsygdom, lårbensbrud, slangebid, tennisalbue, åreknude

sick-m

Disease
+mass
Disease is defined as any condition which may require treatment, including mental conditions.
No distinction is made between human, animal or plant diseases.

aids, bronkitis, hjertebanken, kræft, migræne, psoriasis, spat, tuberkulose, tyfus


<sick> 


Abstract: terms of measurement and amounts;cf. also <cur>, <container>, <meta>

amount

Amount
+count
+abstract

Members of this category can appear in the following context:
(1){num+} + amount +{<+af>}: denotes content;
or
2. +s(S/P), where <sS> denotes +mass noun and <sP>
denotes +count noun.
The category is endocentric. 
“Hun købte 3 duske/skovlfulde/… _______ .” [latent modificator].

blok, bundt, dråbe, favnfuld, hoben, humpel, håndfuld, klat, kopfuld, maskinfuld, nip, portion, ration, sending, skvis, smule, tylvt, visk

group

Group (of…)
+count
+abstract
Members of this category can appear in the following context:
{+num} <group>  {<+af> or <+om>}; denotes either content or agent.

anekdotesamling, fonotek, håndbibliotek, kaffestel, maskinpark, nøglebundt, perlerække, produktgruppe, regelsæt, skudsalve, stjernehob, tandempar, tyvestykspakke

unit

Unit of measurement.
+count
+abstract
<num+>
The category has not been checked.

 


Acts and events (+V[erbality] feature)

act

Act.
±count/mass
+abstract
+control
+human agent
The following words and words in which they appear have been tagged <act> as default: ”a
nalyse”, ”behandling”, ”lovgivning”, ”vejledning”.

 

act-c

Act
+count
+abstract
+control
+human agent
+dynamic
Some deverbal <act> can be further distinguised by a +resultative/+telic meaning. Some of these words thus have another tag which denotes this result, e.g. if it is concrete. Not all words to which this applies have, however, received this tag at present.

The following words and words in which they appear have been tagged <act-c> as default: ”
angreb”, ”besøg”, ”ekspedition”, ”forsøg”, ”jagt”, ”færd”, ”kys”, ”rejse”, ”ritual”, ”safari”, ”tur”, ”tyveri”, ”undersøgelse”, ”vandring”, ”visit”, ”udflugt”, ”øvelse”.
The category has not been checked.

 

act-m

Act
+mass
+abstract
+control
+human agent
+dynamic
”Vi har brug for  mere/noget ___.”
Deverbal nouns:
”-eri” has typically been tagged as <act>.
”-en” has typically been tagged as <act-m>.
The following words and words in which they appear have all been given an <act-m> tagging as default: ”
kontrol” (nb! a few exceptions exist!), ”misbrug”, ”opdragelse”, ”samarbejde”, ”træning”.
The category has not been checked.

 

event

Event
±count/mass (not specified)
+abstract
–control
The category has not been checked.

 

event-c

Event
+count
+abstract
–control
The category has not been checked.

 

event-m

Event
+mass
+abstract
–control
The category has not been checked.

 


<act> and <event>

Tagging of <act> and <event> is based on prototypical usage: -c or –m. When undecided or both taggings possible, a tagging as ither <act> or <event> has been applied.


Acts and events
(+V[erbality] feature)

act-talk

Speech, talk
±count/mass
+abstract
+control
+human agent
The category includes speech and talk which includes several agents, e.g. ”diskussion”.Inkluderer flere agenter, tale
Some words are morphologically -mNogle er morf. –m: ”knever”, ”kævl”, ”ordskvalder”, ”ordstrid”, ”parlamenteren”, ”pjadder”, ”pladder”, ”plidderpladder”, ”pludren”, ”[...]sladder”, ”sladren”, ”[...]sludder”, ”sludren”, ”smalltalk”, ”[...]snakken”, ”ævl”, ”øregas”, ”øregejl”.

debat, diskussion, drøftelse, elevsamtale, interview, småskænderi, topartsforhandling

act-dance

Dance
+count (prototypically)
+abstract
+control
+human agent
This category typically includes several agents.
Some words are morphologically –m, e.g. “boston”, “breakdance”, “disko”, “gogo”, “hiphop”, “jitterbug”, “jive”, “salsa”, “squaredance”, “step”, “tekno”, “twist”, “twostep”.
There is a clear polysemy relation between dance, <act-dance>, and music, e.g.
”allemande”, ”bossanova”, ”flamenco”, ”hiphop”, ”rheinlænder”, ”samba”, ”tango”.
Some <act-dance> can also appear in a sports context, e.g. ”marathondans”.

borddans, charleston, gigue, gogo, nøgendans, polka, polonæse, sjæler, æggedans

act-play

Game, play
±
count´/mass (2/3 of <act-play> is +count)
+abstract
+control
+human agent
The activity in this category typically involves several agent..
About 1/3 are morphologically –m, e.g. specific names for games such as ”banko”, ”canasta”, ”[...]tagfat”, ”halvtolv”, ”kricket”, ”mausel”, ”snooker”, ”[...]tips”.
”Man spiller ________.”[1]
Nouns which are +count are typically countable through a ”-spil”/”-leg” construction:”De leger gætteleg/huskeleg/sommerleg.”

andespil, bingo, fangeleg, gnav, halvtolv, kortspil, mausel, mikado, stangtennis, strippoker, yatzy

act-sport

Sport
+mass (typically)
+abstract
+control
+human agent.
Exceptions to +mass are typically words with one of the following characteristica:
(1) They end in e.g. ”-dans”, ”-idræt”, ”-løb”, ”-sejlads”, ”-sport”.
(2) The words in question are verbal nouns, e.g. ”ridning”, ”skydning”, ”brydning”.
(3) The words in question also have a concrete meaning (<cc-h>), e.g. ”fodbold”, ”håndbold”, ”stockcar”.When considered as a sport, however, all these words appear as +mass.
”Peter går til/dyrker/spiller _____.”
”____ er en populær sport/fornøjelse.”

akrobatik, amatørboksning, børneidræt, crawl, dressurridning, fægtning, højdespring, military, spring, squash

sd

Speech act
The category has not been checked.

 

ss

Speech product
The category has not been checked.

 


Time

dur

Duration of time
The category has not been checked.

 

per

Period of/in time
The category has not been checked

 

temp

Temporal
The category has not been checked.

 

occ

Occasion
The category has not been checked.

 

 

 

[1] <act-play> +mass pr. 2610 (tvivlsomme i parentes): banko, baseball, bezique, bingo, blindebuk, bob, boccia, boule, bowling, […]bridge, canasta, cricket, dart, domino, (dødbold), […]fodbold, gnav, go, golf, halvtolv, hasard, hjerterfri, hockey, karambole, kluddermor, kricket, kroket, langbold, lhombre, lhombre, ludo, (lykkehjul), (matador), mausel, (mølle), petanque, (pind), (pingpong), […]poker, (rommy), rundbold, seksogtres, sjavs, […]skak, slyngbold, snooker, solitaire, sorteper, stanto, stikbold, stopbold, (styrvolt), ståtrold, […]tagfat, […]tennis, terre, tipning, […]tips, […]whist, yatzy.

 


In order to continue using the Java applets, see Verify Java Version and Download Java.
We are actively working on replacing all our Java with portable HTML5.


Copyright 1996-2020 | Report a Problem / Contact Us | Printable Version